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Fo-ti, He-shou-wu Seeds (Polygonum multiflorum) 4.95 - 1

Fo-ti, He-shou-wu Seeds...

Price €3.95 (SKU: MHS 110)
,
5/ 5
<h2><strong>Fo-ti, He-shou-wu Seeds (Polygonum multiflorum)</strong></h2> <h2 class=""><span style="color: #fd0000;"><strong>Price for Package of 5 seeds.</strong></span></h2> <p><em>Polygonum multiflorum</em>&nbsp;(Fo-ti) is a popular herb in traditional Chinese medicine. Commonly known as He shou wu in China and Fo-ti in North America, studies have shown this herb to be beneficial in the treatment of cancer, diabetes, hair loss, hardening of the arteries, and neurodegenerative diseases.</p> <p><strong>What is Fo-Ti?</strong></p> <p><em>Polygonum multiflorum</em> Thunb. (<em>P. multiflorum</em>) or <em>Fallopia maltiflora</em> is officially listed in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia and is one of the most popular herbs in Chinese medicines [R].</p> <p>In North America, it is commonly known as Fo-ti.</p> <p>It is widely cultivated throughout China and other countries such as Japan, where it grows in valley shrubs, hillside forests, gutter rock crevices and other locations at altitudes of 200-3000 m [R].</p> <p>The plant grows to be 2-4 m tall consisting of a woody tuber, leaves that are 3-7 cm long and arrowhead-shaped, white or greenish-white flowers that are 6-7 mm in diameter and an achene fruit 2.5-3 mm in length [R].</p> <p>Over the years, parts of Fo-ti&nbsp;have been used for different medicinal purposes.</p> <p>The leaves, root tuber, and rhizomes have been used as a tonic in the anti-aging formula while the stem has been used to alleviate insomnia and to help treat diabetes [R].</p> <p><strong>Chemical Constituents of&nbsp;Fo-ti</strong></p> <p>More than 100 chemical compounds have been isolated from Fo-ti, and the most biologically relevant components have been determined to be from the families of stilbenes, quinones, flavonoids, and phospholipids.</p> <p>Processing Fo-ti, as opposed to using the raw herb, influences the amount and type of chemical constituents found in the plant [R,&nbsp;R].</p> <p>The toxicity of processed Fo-ti&nbsp;is lower than that of the crude herb and this may be associated with the decreased levels of some of the components after processing [R].</p> <p>Additionally, processing of Fo-ti&nbsp;resulted in the formation of five new chemicals that were not identified in the crude herb [R].</p> <p>Refer to the technical section for the full names of these new chemicals and for an extensive list of the chemical constituents of Fo-ti&nbsp;view the article by Lin <em>et al.</em> (2015) [R].</p> <p>Two of the best-studied constituents of Fo-ti include&nbsp;2,3,5,40-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside (TSG) and emodin.</p> <p><strong>Pharmacokinetics of Fo-ti</strong></p> <p>Only limited data about certain constituents of Fo-ti is available.</p> <p>Rats rapidly absorb TSG into its bodily fluid and quickly eliminated, distributing through the liver and lung but hardly through the blood-brain and blood-testicle barriers [R].</p> <p>Emodin is found primarily in the liver and brain [R].</p> <p><strong>Health Benefits of Fo-ti</strong></p> <p>Fo-ti&nbsp;exhibits a wide spectrum of pharmacological effects, including anti-aging, immunologic, neuroprotective, anticancer and anti-inflammatory effects.</p> <p>However, few clinical studies have been conducted to evaluate the traditional therapeutic claims and to understand the medical potential of its bioactive compounds.</p> <p><strong>Immune-Supporting Effects of&nbsp;Fo-ti</strong></p> <p><strong>1) Anti-inflammatory Effects of&nbsp;Fo-ti</strong></p> <p>TSG and emodin in Fo-ti&nbsp;can decrease inflammation and help with colitis in mouse models by increasing PPAR-gamma and decreasing NF-kB&nbsp;[R, R, R].</p> <p>In mice, A methanol extract of Fo-ti has an&nbsp;anti-inflammatory effect on mouse macrophage cells that are stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (a bacterial toxin from harmful bacteria).</p> <p>This Fo-ti extract inhibited NF-kB activation and thus reduced nitric oxide, COX-2 enzyme, and inflammatory cytokines like TNF-alpha and&nbsp;IL-6 [R].</p> <p>Emodin protects microglia cells in the brain from inflammation due to lipopolysaccharides through AMPK/Nrf2 activation [R].</p> <p><strong>2) Fo-ti Promotes Good Immune Function</strong></p> <p>The sugars (rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, and glucose) and anthraquinone glycosides found within Fo-ti&nbsp;can improve immune response and overall immune system function (immunomodulatory effect).</p> <p>Fo-ti boosts the immune system by increasing the production of T and B cells, and improving the activities of the immune cells, as well as increasing the secretion of the inflammatory tumor necrosis factor.</p> <p>Further, Fo-ti increases the&nbsp;activity of natural killer (NK) cells [R, R].</p> <p><strong>3)&nbsp;Fo-ti May be Effective against MRSA</strong></p> <p>Fo-ti has anti-bacterial activity against methicillin-resistant <em>Staphylocuccus aureus</em> (MRSA) in a cell-based study [R].</p> <p><strong>4)&nbsp;Fo-ti has Antiviral activities</strong></p> <p>Fo-ti exhibited anti-HIV by preventing the virus from entering lymphocytes in a cell-based study [R].</p> <p>Emodin blocks binding of SARS coronavirus human cells in a cell-based study [R].</p> <p><strong>5) Fo-ti May Help with Asthma</strong></p> <p>In a mouse model of asthma, Fo-ti decreases airway allergic symptoms [R].</p> <p><strong>Antioxidant Activities of&nbsp;Fo-ti</strong></p> <p><strong>6) Fo-ti&nbsp;Protects the Liver</strong></p> <p>The anthraquinones and polysaccharides found in Fo-ti<em>&nbsp;</em>protect&nbsp;the liver by reducing inflammation, preventing fat oxidation, and increasing antioxidant effects [R, R].</p> <p>Pre-treating rats with 200 mg/kg water extract of Fo-ti protect the rats against chloroform-induced liver toxicity and significantly reduced plasma ALT (a liver enzyme that indicates liver damage) as well as improved glutathione levels and other oxidative stress markers. However, increasing the dose to 400 mg/kg did not protect the liver against chloroform toxicity, and at 4000 mg/kg, Fo-ti damaged the liver [R].</p> <p><strong>7) Fo-ti May Protect the Bone from Oxidative Stress</strong></p> <p>TSG from Fo-ti extract protects the bone-making cells (osteoblasts) from oxidative damage in a cell-based study, suggesting that TSG may protect against osteoporosis due to oxidative stress&nbsp;[R].</p> <p>Hot water extract of Fo-ti prevents bone loss (osteopenia) from mice with that lose bone mass from having their ovaries removed [R].</p> <p><strong>8) Fo-ti Protects Tissues&nbsp;Oxidation in Diabetes</strong></p> <p>2,3,5,4′-Tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-d-glucoside&nbsp;protects against kidney damage from high blood sugar in diabetic mice through SIRT1 and TGF-beta1 pathways [R, R].</p> <p>Stilbene glucoside from Fo-ti inhibits tissue aging due to high blood sugar (formation of advanced glycation end product) [R].</p> <p><strong>Neuroprotective effects of&nbsp;Fo-ti</strong></p> <p><strong>9) Fo-ti&nbsp;May&nbsp;Help with Alzheimer’s Disease</strong></p> <p>In a mouse model of Alzheimer’s, tetrahydroxystilbene glucoside from Fo-ti helps with memory deficit [R].</p> <p>A small Chinese clinical trial found that Fo-ti extract is effective against Alzheimer’s disease [R].</p> <p>Tetrahydroxystilbene glucoside helps slow down age-related memory loss in rats [R].</p> <p>In a cell-based study, treatment with a Fo-ti root extract reduced amyloid plaque&nbsp;that can cause Alzheimer‘s disease [R].</p> <p>Emodin, a chemical found in Fo-ti, inhibits the enzyme that breaks down acetylcholine, which might be how it helps with cognitive function in a similar manner to Huperzine A and some Alzheimer‘s drugs [R].</p> <p><strong>10) Fo-ti May Help with Parkinson’s Disease</strong></p> <p>In mouse models of Parkinson’s Disease, TSG and an ethanol extract of Fo-ti protects dopaminergic neurons from chemical-induced damage [R,&nbsp;R].</p> <p><strong>11) Fo-ti&nbsp;Protects the Brain from&nbsp;Stroke</strong></p> <p>Hexane extracts of Fo-ti can protect against tissue damage following stroke in mice and thus may have clinical applications as a protective agent against neurological injury [R].</p> <p><strong>12) Fo-ti Protects Against Glutamate-Induced Toxicity</strong></p> <p>In a cell-based study, Fo-ti protects neuronal cells from the hippocampus against glutamate toxicity, suggesting that it can help with cognitive disorders, especially ones that involve memory loss [R].</p> <p><strong>Fo-ti&nbsp;and&nbsp;Cardiovascular Risks</strong></p> <p><strong>13) Fo-ti&nbsp;Helps Reduces Cholesterol</strong></p> <p>Fo-ti&nbsp;can reduce cholesterol and triglycerides in people with high cholesterol&nbsp;[R, R, R].</p> <p>However, further research is required to understand how Fo-ti&nbsp;helps reduce cholesterol.</p> <p><strong>14) Fo-ti&nbsp;Helps Prevent Hardening of the Arteries</strong></p> <p>TSG<em>&nbsp;</em>can prevent hardening of the arteries by reducing lipid levels in the blood, reduce inflammation and normalize the structure of the blood vessel via a reduction in the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 genes [R].</p> <p><strong>15) Fo-ti&nbsp;has Protective Effects in Blood-Clotting Disorders</strong></p> <p>Thromboembolic (blood-clotting) disorders are caused by loose blood clots that form in a blood vessel and are carried by the bloodstream into another vessel that subsequently becomes blocked.</p> <p>This often happens in the lungs (pulmonary embolism), brain (stroke), gastrointestinal tract, kidneys, or leg. This phenomenon is known as thromboembolism.</p> <p>The chemical 2,3,5,4′-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside&nbsp;isolated from Fo-ti can prevent abnormal blood clotting [R].</p> <p><strong>16) Fo-ti<em>&nbsp;</em>Protects the Heart</strong></p> <p>In rats, TSG protected the heart from squeezing pressure around the abdomen [R].</p> <p>In a heart attack model, Fo-ti stilbene glycoside can protect against cell injury from lack of oxygen or blood flow by increasing the levels of cellular antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and the nitric oxide pathways [R].</p> <p><strong>17) Fo-ti Helps with Fructose-Induced Metabolic Syndrome</strong></p> <p>Fo-ti, together with red ginseng, helps with fructose-induced metabolic syndrome by improving high blood pressure, obesity, high blood lipids, inflammation of the blood vessels, and insulin sensitivity&nbsp;[R].</p> <p><strong>Other</strong></p> <p><strong>18) Fo-ti&nbsp;Helps Prevent Cancer</strong></p> <p>These anthraquinones induce apoptosis (cell death) in cancer cells and activate the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathways which are abnormal in many human cancers [R, R].</p> <p>Emodin and aloe-emodin&nbsp;can inhibit cell growth (by inhibiting apoptosis) of human cervical cancer cells, human tongue cancer cells, neuroblastoma cells, and melanoma cells [R].</p> <p>It could significantly reduce colon tumor volume and weight in mice [R].</p> <p>Emodin enhanced tumor cell death of gallbladder cancer cells that are injected into mice [R].</p> <p><strong>19) Fo-ti&nbsp;Helps with Insomnia and Sleep Disorders</strong></p> <p>Fo-ti&nbsp;extracts are commonly prescribed in Taiwan for the treatment of insomnia [R].</p> <p>Additionally, although the evidence is insufficient, <em>P. multiflorum</em> may ease the anxiety and insomnia experienced by patients with bipolar disorder [R].</p> <p><strong>20) Fo-ti&nbsp;Helps With Hair Growth</strong></p> <p>Fo-ti&nbsp;has traditionally been used to treat patients suffering from baldness and hair loss&nbsp;throughout East Asia.</p> <p>This traditional use of the herb has been substantiated by a study conducted in mice showing that <em>P. multiflorum</em> extracts promote hair growth by inducing the anagen phase in resting hair follicles [R].</p> <p>Torachrysone-8-O-β-D-glucoside, a compound found in <em>P. multiflorum</em>, can significantly increase the number of dermal papilla cells which play a role in hair growth and hair fiber length [R].</p> <p><strong>Potential Side Effects and Toxicity</strong></p> <p><strong>Liver Toxicity of Fo-ti</strong></p> <p>The best-known toxicity of <em>P. multiflorum</em> is the induction of hepatotoxicity [R]. Hepatotoxicity induced by <em>P. multiflorum </em>can be severe and even result in death.</p> <p>Several cases of hepatotoxicity due to <em>P. multiflorum</em> have been reported in patients from Australia, China, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands and Slovakia who were taking the product for hair loss, chronic prostatitis or to boost the immune system [R, R, R, R].</p> <p>The main chemicals responsible for the hepatotoxicity of <em>P. multiflorum</em> are free anthraquinones such as emodin and physcion [R]. The toxicity of emodin has been detailed by the U.S. National Toxicology Program [R].</p> <p>The hepatotoxicity of the water extract is higher than that of the ethanol and acetone extracts of <em>P. multiflorum</em>. Processing of <em>P. multiflorum</em> also decreased hepatotoxicity [R, R].</p> <p><strong>Kidney and Lung Toxicity of Fo-ti</strong></p> <ol> <li><em> multiflorum</em> is also toxic to the kidneys (nephrotoxicity) and the lungs (pulmonary toxicity), particularly after long-term use.</li> <li><em> multiflorum</em> causes embryonic toxicity in mice and may affect embryonic development, suggesting that it may not be safe for pregnant women.</li> </ol> <p>Warfarin (prescribed to prevent the formation of blood clots) may interact negatively with <em>P. multiflorum </em>resulting in bone marrow suppression [R].</p> <p><strong>Technical</strong></p> <ul> <li>The underlying mechanisms of <em>P. multiflorum </em>may be related to the antioxidant effects of TSG, a decrease of the angiotensin II level, suppression of transforming growth factor-β1 expression, and inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation.</li> <li>Cardiac remodeling refers to the changes in size, shape, structure, and function of the heart and is usually a pathological result of an injury to the heart muscle.</li> <li>Several studies have demonstrated that the anti-inflammatory effects of <em>P. multiflorum</em> occur through inhibition of the expression of pro-inflammatory signaling factors such as nuclear factor-κB, tumor necrosis factor-α, inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, chemokines, and cytokines (R, R1).</li> <li>Additionally, other markers of diabetes, including the expression of TGF-β1, COX-2, and SIRT1 genes, were found to significantly improve in TSG-treated diabetic rats [R].</li> <li>Full chemical names for the compounds found in <em>P. multiflorum </em>after processing: 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4(H)-pyran-4-one, hydroxymaltol, 5-hydroxym ethyl-furfural, butanedioic acid, and 5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4(H)-pyran-4-one</li> <li>P. multiflorum boosts the immune system by accelerating the production of T and B lymphocytes, initiating the mixed lymphocyte reaction, improving macrophage phagocytosis, and increasing secretion of tumor necrosis factor (TNF).</li> </ul> <p><strong>Other names for <em>P. multiflorum </em>include:</strong></p> <p>Chinese Cornbind, Chinese Knotweed, Climbing Knotweed, Fallopia multiflora, Flowery Knotweed, Fo Ti Tieng, <strong>Fo-Ti,</strong> He Shou Wu, Ho Shou Wu, Multiflora Preparata, Poligonum, Poligonum Multiflorum, Polygonum,Polygonum Multiflorum Thunberg, Racine de Renouée Multiflore, Radix Polygoni Multiflori, Radix Polygoni Shen Min, Renouée, Renouée à Fleurs Nombreuses, Renouée de Chine, Renouée Multiflore, Reynoutria multiflora (Thunb), Rhizoma Polygonata, Shen Min, Shou Wu, Shou Wu Pian, Tuber Fleeceflower, Zhihe Shou Wu, Zi Shou Wu</p><script src="//cdn.public.n1ed.com/G3OMDFLT/widgets.js"></script>
MHS 110 (5 S)
Fo-ti, He-shou-wu Seeds (Polygonum multiflorum) 4.95 - 1
Radish Watermelon (Raphanus...

Radish Watermelon (Raphanus...

Price €1.95 (SKU: VE 29 RW)
,
5/ 5
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8" /> <h2><strong>Radish Watermelon (Raphanus sativus)</strong></h2> <h2><span style="color: #ff0000;"><strong>Price for Package of 20 seeds.</strong></span></h2> <p>The Watermelon radish, also known as Rooseheart or Red Meat, is an heirloom Chinese Daikon radish. It is a member of the Brassica (mustard) family along with arugula, broccoli and turnips.</p> <p> </p> <p>Watermelon radishes are edible globular roots attached to thin stems and wavy green leaves. Their exteriors are creamy white with pale green shoulders, a sign of the chlorophyll it received from exposure to the sun. Watermelon radish flesh is white closest to the exterior and becomes bright, circular striations of pink and magenta toward the center. Hence, the watermelon reference.</p> <p> </p> <p>The flesh is tender crisp, succulent and firm. Its flavor is mild, only slightly peppery with some sweet notes. Depending on when harvested, Watermelon radishes can range in size from golf ball to soft ball. Watermelon radishes can be served fresh or cooked, hot or cold. They pair well with fennel, apple, cheeses such as feta and chèvre, butter, creamy based dressings, vinaigrettes, bacon, white fish, cucumbers, mild salad greens, cooked eggs, noodles such as soba and udon, citrus, cilantro, mint and tarragon.</p> <p> </p> <p>Watermelon radishes are most commonly available during spring and late fall, since they are a cool season crop preferring soil temperatures below 68 degrees Fahrenheit. Overly warm soil temperatures affect the radish’s flavor, turning a mild pepper flavor into a bitter sting.</p> <p> </p> <p>Here’s an easy recipe to give these beautiful vegetables a try:</p> <p> </p> <p>Sweet Pickled Onion and Watermelon Radish Salad</p> <p>Makes 4 cups</p> <p> </p> <p>1 large Watermelon radish, sliced into thin rounds</p> <p>1 small white onion, sliced into thin rounds</p> <p>1/3 cup orange juice</p> <p>2 Tbsp extra virgin olive oil</p> <p>1/2 tsp sea salt</p> <p>1/2 tsp pepper</p> <p>2 Tbsp apple cider vinegar</p> <p>splash of rice wine vinegar (optional – adds an extra layer of tart-sweetness)</p> <p> </p> <p>Pickled Watermelon radish salad</p> <p>Directions:</p> <ol> <li>Place radish and onion slices in a large mixing bowl.</li> <li>Add the remaining ingredients and toss well.</li> <li>Refrigerate overnight to chill and meld flavors before serving.</li> </ol>
VE 29 RW (20)
Radish Watermelon (Raphanus sativus)

Giant plant (with giant fruits)
Chinese Green Luobo Radish Seeds

Chinese Green Luobo Radish...

Price €2.45 (SKU: VE 98)
,
5/ 5
<h2><strong>Chinese Green Luobo Radish Seeds</strong></h2> <h2><span style="color:#f40707;"><strong>Price for Package of 20 seeds.</strong></span></h2> <p><span>Green Meat radishes are easily distinguished by their shape and color. The swollen and elongated taproot is two-toned like several radish varieties, yet it is unique in its coloring. Its upper half near the stem end is lime green colored, and its tapered lower half is cream colored. It can be harvested when as small as five inches or as large as ten inches. Its thick skin covers a green to creamy white flesh which offers a crisp texture and a radish flavor that can vary from mild to hot depending upon growing conditions and maturity.</span></p> <p><strong><span>Current Facts</span></strong></p> <p><span>The Green Meat radish (Raphanus sativus) is an heirloom variety radish and a member of the Brassicaceae or Cruciferae family along with arugula, broccoli, and turnips. The entire plant is edible, roots and leaves. Green radishes such as the Green Meat can be found sold under a variety of different names including green skinned, tsingato green, Japanese minowase, and Chinense green luobo.</span></p> <p><strong><span>Seasons/Availability</span></strong></p> <p><span>The Green Meat radish is available in the spring and fall months.</span></p> <p><strong><span>Nutritional Value</span></strong></p> <p><span>Similar to red radishes, green radishes such as the Green Meat radish contain a significant amount of vitamin C, though less than their red relatives. Green type radishes are higher in carotenoids, proanthocyanidins, and chlorophylls than red varieties. The greens of the Green Meat radish additionally are high in nutrients, even more so than the radish root itself.</span></p> <p><strong><span>Applications</span></strong></p> <p><span>The spicy flavor and crisp texture of the Green Meat radish shines in fresh preparations. Slice thin and add to sandwiches, salads or wraps. Use to add a spicy accent to tacos, nachos, and Mexican soups. Slice lengthwise and pair with cream based dips or soft cheeses. Grate and serve as a condiment with sushi or sashimi or add to slaws to give them a spicy kick. In China Green Meat radishes are popularly pickled along with Sichuan peppers. Green Meat radish greens can be added to soups and stir-fries. To store, keep Green Meat radishes refrigerated and used within one to two weeks.</span></p> <p><strong><span>Ethnic/Cultural Info</span></strong></p> <p><span>In China, many radishes such as the Green Meat radish are used in traditional Chinese medicine, believed to promote health and wellness particularly related to the respiratory system. This is reflected in the ancient Chinese proverb which states, "Eating pungent radish and drinking hot tea, let the starved doctors beg on their knees." Radishes have long held such a high place of esteem in Chinese culture, the Quingdao Radish Festival dates back to the Ming Dynasty nearly 600 years ago and is an annual celebration of the radish and Chinese folklore which encourages eating radish on the ninth day of the lunar new year for good health.</span></p> <p><strong><span>Geography/History</span></strong></p> <p><span>The Green Meat radish is believed to be a relative of a traditional green Chinese radish native to northern China. Originally known by the name Chinese Green Luobo or Qingluobo these green radishes like many other Asian radishes such as the daikon are harvested at a larger size than European radishes. Green radishes are a popular variety in Asian countries and have just in recent years begun to gain in popularity in the United States. Like most radish varieties the Green Meat grows best in mild climates and is not heat tolerant.</span></p>
VE 98 (20 S)
Chinese Green Luobo Radish Seeds

Giant plant (with giant fruits)
Native Korean Radish YEOL MOO Seeds

Native Korean Radish YEOL...

Price €2.45 (SKU: VE 206)
,
5/ 5
<h2><strong>Native Korean Radish YEOL MOO Seeds</strong></h2> <h2><span style="color: #fb0101;"><strong>Price for Package of 20 seeds.</strong></span></h2> <p><span>Korean radish are larger than most common radishes. They have a crisp, firm flesh that offers a relatively mild radish flavor and spice. Its thick, smooth skin is creamy white and capped with pale green shoulders. Though commonly sold with the greens removed both the root and the greens of this radish are edible. Its flesh is white with a texture and taste similar to that of the daikon radish. Unlike the carrot shaped daikon however, the Korean radish is rounded and plump with an oblong shape.</span></p> <p><strong><span>Seasons/Availability</span></strong></p> <p><span>Korean radishes are available year-round with fall and winter harvests offering the most flavorful radishes.</span></p> <p><strong><span>Current Facts</span></strong></p> <p><span>The Korean radish (Raphanus sativus), is an annual, cool season root vegetable and a member of the Brassicaceae or mustard family. Related to the daikon radish, the Korean radish is also known as Lo Bok, Mu and Moo. A hybrid variety known as tae baek was developed for a late summer to early winter growing season as the plants aren't normally productive in warm weather conditions.</span></p> <p><strong><span>Nutritional Value</span></strong></p> <p><span>The Korean radish provides dietary fiber, vitamin C, and carotene. Both the raw Korean radish and the kimchee are popularly used in Korean cuisine and are believed to be beneficial in supporting digestive health.</span></p> <p><strong><span>Applications</span></strong></p> <p><span>The Korean radish is most commonly used as an ingredient in kimchee. They are also popularly sliced thin, pickled and served as an appetizer or accompaniment to grilled meats. Its flesh is dense and crisp and stands up well to cooking. Add to soups, stews and stir-fries or slice thick and braise with pork or beef. Raw Korean radish can be thinly sliced and added to salads or bahn mi sandwiches. To store, wrap tightly in plastic and refrigerate. Best used within two weeks.</span></p> <p><strong><span>Ethnic/Cultural Info</span></strong></p> <p><span>In Korea, this radish is favored as a major ingredient in hot Korean kimchee. This variety is also commonly used for pickling in the Far East.</span></p> <p><strong><span>Geography/History</span></strong></p> <p><span>Most popular in Korean and Japanese cuisine, Korean radishes are grown year round throughout Asia. The Korean radish thrives in cool climates and is typically ready to harvest in fifty to seventy days.</span></p> <p><strong><span>Featured Restaurants</span></strong></p> <p><span>Restaurants currently purchasing this product as an ingredient for their menu.</span></p> <p><span>The Bellows       San Marcos CA                 619-395-6325</span></p> <p><span>Happy Pantry    Carlsbad CA       858-449-4666</span></p> <p><span>Izakaya Pacific Beach     San Diego CA     858-274-2742</span></p> <p><span>Saiko Sushi-North Park San Diego CA     619-886-6656</span></p> <p><span>Gold Mine Natural Food Company         Poway CA           858-537-9830</span></p> <p><span>Knotty Barrel     San Diego CA     619-269-7156</span></p> <p><span>Sushi Tadokoro                San Diego CA     619-347-2792</span></p> <p><span>Davanti Enoteca India St.             San Diego CA     619-237-9606</span></p> <p><span>Harney Sushi Old Town                San Diego CA     619-295-3272</span></p> <p><span>Stella Public House         San Diego CA     512-799-6462</span></p> <p><span>Gyu-Kaku San Diego      San Diego CA     858-693-3790</span></p> <p><span>Fish Pit San Diego CA     619-546-9369</span></p> <p><span>Belmont Park Cannonball            San Diego CA     858-228-9283</span></p> <p><span>Fishbone Kitchen            San Diego CA     619-643-2261</span></p> <p><strong><span>Recipe Ideas</span></strong></p> <p><strong><span>Recipes that include Korean Radish. One  is easiest, three is harder.</span></strong></p> <p><span>Korean Bapsang                              Korean Radish Soup (Muguk)</span></p> <p><span>Beyond Kimchee                             Radish Pancake</span></p> <p><span>Maangchi                           Cooked Radish Side Dish</span></p> <p><span>Eating and Living                             Korean Radish Soup (Mu Guk/Moo Guk)</span></p> <p><span>No Recipes                        Radish Kimchi</span></p> <p><span>The Kitchn                          Vegetarian Dduk Gook (Korean Rice Cake Soup)</span></p> <p><span>Umami Holiday                Korean Pickled Radishes and Jalapenos</span></p> <p><span>Korean Bapsang                              Musaengchae (Spicy Korean Radish Salad)</span></p> <p><span> </span></p>
VE 206 (20 S)
Native Korean Radish YEOL MOO Seeds

Variety from Italy
Cucumber - Melon Seeds - Carosello Barattiere

Cucumber Melon Seeds -...

Price €1.45 (SKU: PK 9)
,
5/ 5
<h2 class=""><strong>Cucumber - Melon Seeds - Carosello Barattiere</strong></h2> <h2><span style="color: #ff0000;"><strong>Price for Package of 5 or 10 seeds.</strong></span></h2> <p>Apulian (Italy) Heirloom cultivar sweet oval cucumber-melon with smooth crisp light green skin. The white interior reveals a savory tender flesh that is bitter-free and does not cause indigestion as other cucumbers can. The Fruits are 500 grams of weight, round, dark green, smooth, without hair on the skin, contain less simple sugars and less sodium than the Cucumber species.</p> <p>Growth habit is spread out. A drought-resistant variety that does well in most places, including hot climates.</p> <p>Maturity: 60 days</p> <p>Open-pollinated Heirloom</p> <h3><strong>Sowing instructions:</strong></h3> <p>Plant seeds 1 inch deep indoors from March-April or directly outdoors from June-July. Transplant seedlings outdoors in June spacing plants 20-24 inches apart and rows 36 inches apart. Harvest from August-September.</p> <p>Maturity: 60 days</p> <p>Open-pollinated Heirloom</p><script src="//cdn.public.n1ed.com/G3OMDFLT/widgets.js"></script>
PK 9 (5 S)
Cucumber - Melon Seeds - Carosello Barattiere

Giant plant (with giant fruits)
Giant Onion Seeds - Globemaster (Allium Giganteum)  - 4

Giant Onion Seeds -...

Price €1.95 (SKU: MHS 31)
,
5/ 5
<h2><strong>Giant Onion Seeds - Globemaster (Allium Giganteum)</strong></h2> <h2><span style="color:#ff0000;"><strong> Price for Package of 10 seeds.</strong></span></h2> <p>These flowers are absolutely huge! They measure a whopping 6 - 8" wide! This variety of Allium makes an excellent dried flower. They are also a favorite of bees.</p> <p><strong>Wikipedia:</strong></p> <p>Allium giganteum, also known as Giant Onion, is a perennial bulbous plant of the onion genus, used as a flowering garden plant, and growing to 2 metres. It is the tallest ornamental Allium in common cultivation. In early to midsummer, small globes of intense purple flower heads (umbels) appear, followed by attractive seed heads. A popular cultivar, 'Globemaster', is shorter (80 centimetres (31 in)) but produces much bigger, deep violet, flower heads (15–20 centimetres (5.9–7.9 in)). Both varieties have been granted the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.</p> <p>NAME: Giant Allium ‘Globemaster’</p> <p>SCIENTIFIC NAME: Allium Giganteum</p> <p>COLOR: Purple 6 - 8” round flower heads</p> <p>PLANT SEEDS: Outdoors after frost / Indoors weeks before last frost</p> <p>BLOOM TIME: Late Spring - Mid Summer</p> <p>HARDINESS ZONE: 4 - 9</p> <p>PLANT HEIGHT: 36 - 48”</p> <p>PLANT SPACING: 12 - 15”</p> <p>LIGHT REQUIREMENTS: Sun</p> <p>SOIL &amp; WATER PREFERENCES: Average</p> <p><strong>Propagation:</strong></p> <p>Always use sterilized planting soil.</p> <p>Moisten planting media, place the fine seeds on the soil and cover them lightly.</p> <p>Stratify the seeds by placing the pot in a plastic bag at approx. 5°C.</p> <p>After 3-4 weeks place the pot to germination temperature, approx. 15°C.</p> <p>Within 1-? months the seeds will germinate, germination can be very slow.</p>
MHS 31
Giant Onion Seeds - Globemaster (Allium Giganteum)  - 4
Passiflora colinvauxii Seeds 1.85 - 1

Passiflora colinvauxii Seeds

Price €3.00 (SKU: V 18 PCX)
,
5/ 5
<h2 class=""><strong>Passiflora colinvauxii Seeds</strong></h2> <h2><span style="color: #ff0000;"><strong>Price for Package of 3 seeds.</strong></span></h2> <p>Passiflora colinvauxii or Colinvaux's Passion Flower. This Rare Passiflora climber is under threat in its natural habitat and is one of 45 Passiflora listed in The 1997 IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants. It is listed as rare. This plant is an extremely prolific bloomer who likes to live in partial shade.</p> <p>It smells like honeysuckle and attracts bees and butterflies. It is a fast-growing climber with bi-lobed leaves 7-16 cm. It flowers profusely in summer which will attract bees.</p> <p>The flowers are medium in size. The sepals and petals are white. The corona consists of a series of filaments, purple with white ends.</p> <p>The fruits are oval, 2-4 cm long, and 1-1.5 cm wide.</p> <p>It is found on the famous Galapagos Islands where it was discovered in 1966, but it probably traveled there from Ecuador.</p> <p>USDA Hardiness Zones 10 to 11</p> <div> <table cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0" border="1"> <tbody> <tr> <td colspan="2" width="100%" valign="top"> <p><span><strong>Sowing Instructions</strong></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap"> <p><span><strong>Propagation:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p><span>Seeds / Cuttings</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap"> <p><span><strong>Pretreat:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p><span>about 24-48 hours soak in warm water</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap"> <p><span><strong>Stratification:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p><span>0</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap"> <p><span><strong>Sowing Time:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p><span>all year round</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap"> <p><span><strong>Sowing Depth:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p><span>0.5 cm</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap"> <p><span><strong>Sowing Mix:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p><span>Coir or sowing mix + sand or perlite</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap"> <p><span><strong>Germination temperature:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p><span>25 ° C +</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap"> <p><span><strong>Location:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p><span>bright + keep constantly moist not wet</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap"> <p><span><strong>Germination Time:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p><span>2-4 Weeks</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap"> <p><span><strong>Watering:</strong></span></p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p><span>Water regularly during the growing season</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top" nowrap="nowrap"> <p>&nbsp;</p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p><br><span><em>Copyright © 2012 Seeds Gallery - Saatgut Galerie - Galerija semena. All Rights Reserved.</em></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <script src="//cdn.public.n1ed.com/G3OMDFLT/widgets.js"></script>
V 18 PCX (3 S)
Passiflora colinvauxii Seeds 1.85 - 1
100 Seeds Habanero Yellow

100 Seeds Habanero Yellow

Price €5.95 (SKU: C 19 Y)
,
5/ 5
<h2 class=""><strong>100 Seeds Habanero Yellow (Capsicum chinense)</strong></h2> <h2><strong><span style="color: #ff0000;">Price for Package of 100 seeds.</span></strong></h2> <div>The habanero is a variety of chili pepper. Unripe habaneros are green, and they color as they mature. The most common color variants are orange and red, but the fruit may also be white, brown, yellow, green, or purple. Typically, a ripe habanero chili is 2–6 cm (0.8–2.4 in) long. Habanero chilis are very hot, rated 100,000–650,000 on the Scoville scale. The habanero's heat, its flavor, and its floral aroma have made it a popular ingredient in hot sauces and spicy foods.<br><br>The name indicates something or someone from La Habana (Havana). In English, it is sometimes spelled and pronounced habañero, the tilde being added as a hyperforeignism patterned after jalapeño.<br><br><strong>Origin and current use</strong><br>The habanero chili comes from the Amazon, from which it was spread, reaching Mexico. A specimen of a domesticated habanero plant, dated at 8,500 years old, was found at an archaeological site in Peru.[citation needed] An intact fruit of a small domesticated habanero, found in pre-ceramic levels in Guitarrero Cave in the Peruvian highlands, was dated to 6500 BC.<br><br>The habanero chili was disseminated by Spanish colonists to other areas of the world, to the point that 18th-century taxonomists mistook China for its place of origin and called it Capsicum chinense ("the Chinese pepper").<br><br>Today, the largest producer is the Yucatán Peninsula, in Mexico. Habaneros are an integral part of Yucatecan food, accompanying most dishes, either in natural form or purée or salsa. Other modern producers include Belize, Panama, Costa Rica, Colombia, Ecuador, and parts of the United States, including Texas, Idaho, and California.<br><br>The Scotch bonnet is often compared to the habanero, since they are two varieties of the same species, but they have different pod types. Both the Scotch bonnet and the habanero have thin, waxy flesh. They have a similar heat level and flavor. Both varieties average around the same level of pungency, but the actual degree varies greatly from one fruit to another according to genetics, growing methods, climate, and plant stress.<br><br>In 1999, the habanero was listed by Guinness World Records as the world's hottest chili, but it has since been displaced by other peppers. The Bhut jolokia (or ghost pepper) and Trinidad moruga scorpion have since been identified as native Capsicum chinense subspecies even hotter than the habanero. Breeders constantly crossbreed subspecies to attempt to create cultivars that will break the record on the Scoville scale. One example is the Carolina Reaper, a cross between a Bhut jolokia pepper with a particularly pungent red habanero.<br><br><strong>Cultivation</strong><br>Habaneros thrive in hot weather. Like all peppers, the habanero does well in an area with good morning sun and in soil with a pH level around 5 to 6 (slightly acidic). Habaneros which are watered daily produce more vegetative growth but the same number of fruit, with lower concentrations of capsaicin, as compared to plants which are watered only when dry (every seven days). Overly moist soil and roots will produce bitter-tasting peppers. Daily watering during flowering and early setting of fruit helps prevent flower and immature fruit from dropping, but flower dropping rates are reported to often reach 90% even in ideal conditions.<br><br>The habanero is a perennial flowering plant, meaning that with proper care and growing conditions, it can produce flowers (and thus fruit) for many years. Habanero bushes are good candidates for a container garden. In temperate climates, though, it is treated as an annual, dying each winter and being replaced the next spring. In tropical and subtropical regions, the habanero, like other chiles, will produce year round. As long as conditions are favorable, the plant will set fruit continuously.<br><br><strong>Cultivars</strong><br>Several growers have attempted to selectively breed habanero plants to produce hotter, heavier, and larger peppers. Most habaneros rate between 200,000 and 300,000 on the Scoville scale. In 2004, researchers in Texas created a mild version of the habanero, but retained the traditional aroma and flavor. The milder version was obtained by crossing the Yucatán habanero pepper with a heatless habanero from Bolivia over several generations.</div> <div></div> <div>Black habanero is an alternative name often used to describe the dark brown variety of habanero chilis (although they are slightly different, being slightly smaller and slightly more sphere-shaped). Some seeds have been found which are thought to be over 7,000 years old. The black habanero has an exotic and unusual taste, and is hotter than a regular habanero with a rating between 400,000 and 450,000 Scoville units. Small slivers used in cooking can have a dramatic effect on the overall dish. Black habaneros take considerably longer to grow than other habanero chili varieties. In a dried form, they can be preserved for long periods of time, and can be reconstituted in water then added to sauce mixes. Previously known as habanero negro, or by their Nahuatl name, their name was translated into English by spice traders in the 19th century as "black habanero". The word "chocolate" was derived from the Nahuatl word, xocolātl [ʃoˈkolaːt͡ɬ], and was used in the description, as well (as "chocolate habanero"), but it proved to be unpronounceable to the British traders, so it was simply named "black habanero".<br><br>A 'Caribbean Red,' a cultivar within the habanero family, has a citrusy and slightly smoky flavor, with a Scoville rating ranging from 300,000 to 445,000 Scoville units.</div> <script src="//cdn.public.n1ed.com/G3OMDFLT/widgets.js"></script>
C 19 Y (100 S)
100 Seeds Habanero Yellow
100 Seeds Habanero Red 5.45 - 3

100 Seeds Habanero Red

Price €5.45 (SKU: C 19 R)
,
5/ 5
<h2><strong>100 Seeds Habanero Red (Capsicum chinense)</strong></h2> <h2><strong><span style="color: #ff0000;">Price for Package of 100 seeds.</span></strong></h2> <div>The habanero is a variety of chili pepper. Unripe habaneros are green, and they color as they mature. The most common color variants are orange and red, but the fruit may also be white, brown, yellow, green, or purple. Typically, a ripe habanero chili is 2–6 cm (0.8–2.4 in) long. Habanero chilis are very hot, rated 100,000–650,000 on the Scoville scale. The habanero's heat, its flavor, and its floral aroma have made it a popular ingredient in hot sauces and spicy foods.<br><br>The name indicates something or someone from La Habana (Havana). In English, it is sometimes spelled and pronounced habañero, the tilde being added as a hyperforeignism patterned after jalapeño.<br><br><strong>Origin and current use</strong><br>The habanero chili comes from the Amazon, from which it was spread, reaching Mexico. A specimen of a domesticated habanero plant, dated at 8,500 years old, was found at an archaeological site in Peru.[citation needed] An intact fruit of a small domesticated habanero, found in pre-ceramic levels in Guitarrero Cave in the Peruvian highlands, was dated to 6500 BC.<br><br>The habanero chili was disseminated by Spanish colonists to other areas of the world, to the point that 18th-century taxonomists mistook China for its place of origin and called it Capsicum chinense ("the Chinese pepper").<br><br>Today, the largest producer is the Yucatán Peninsula, in Mexico. Habaneros are an integral part of Yucatecan food, accompanying most dishes, either in natural form or purée or salsa. Other modern producers include Belize, Panama, Costa Rica, Colombia, Ecuador, and parts of the United States, including Texas, Idaho, and California.<br><br>The Scotch bonnet is often compared to the habanero, since they are two varieties of the same species, but they have different pod types. Both the Scotch bonnet and the habanero have thin, waxy flesh. They have a similar heat level and flavor. Both varieties average around the same level of pungency, but the actual degree varies greatly from one fruit to another according to genetics, growing methods, climate, and plant stress.<br><br>In 1999, the habanero was listed by Guinness World Records as the world's hottest chili, but it has since been displaced by other peppers. The Bhut jolokia (or ghost pepper) and Trinidad moruga scorpion have since been identified as native Capsicum chinense subspecies even hotter than the habanero. Breeders constantly crossbreed subspecies to attempt to create cultivars that will break the record on the Scoville scale. One example is the Carolina Reaper, a cross between a Bhut jolokia pepper with a particularly pungent red habanero.<br><br><strong>Cultivation</strong><br>Habaneros thrive in hot weather. Like all peppers, the habanero does well in an area with good morning sun and in soil with a pH level around 5 to 6 (slightly acidic). Habaneros which are watered daily produce more vegetative growth but the same number of fruit, with lower concentrations of capsaicin, as compared to plants which are watered only when dry (every seven days). Overly moist soil and roots will produce bitter-tasting peppers. Daily watering during flowering and early setting of fruit helps prevent flower and immature fruit from dropping, but flower dropping rates are reported to often reach 90% even in ideal conditions.<br><br>The habanero is a perennial flowering plant, meaning that with proper care and growing conditions, it can produce flowers (and thus fruit) for many years. Habanero bushes are good candidates for a container garden. In temperate climates, though, it is treated as an annual, dying each winter and being replaced the next spring. In tropical and subtropical regions, the habanero, like other chiles, will produce year round. As long as conditions are favorable, the plant will set fruit continuously.<br><br><strong>Cultivars</strong><br>Several growers have attempted to selectively breed habanero plants to produce hotter, heavier, and larger peppers. Most habaneros rate between 200,000 and 300,000 on the Scoville scale. In 2004, researchers in Texas created a mild version of the habanero, but retained the traditional aroma and flavor. The milder version was obtained by crossing the Yucatán habanero pepper with a heatless habanero from Bolivia over several generations.</div> <div></div> <div>Black habanero is an alternative name often used to describe the dark brown variety of habanero chilis (although they are slightly different, being slightly smaller and slightly more sphere-shaped). Some seeds have been found which are thought to be over 7,000 years old. The black habanero has an exotic and unusual taste, and is hotter than a regular habanero with a rating between 400,000 and 450,000 Scoville units. Small slivers used in cooking can have a dramatic effect on the overall dish. Black habaneros take considerably longer to grow than other habanero chili varieties. In a dried form, they can be preserved for long periods of time, and can be reconstituted in water then added to sauce mixes. Previously known as habanero negro, or by their Nahuatl name, their name was translated into English by spice traders in the 19th century as "black habanero". The word "chocolate" was derived from the Nahuatl word, xocolātl [ʃoˈkolaːt͡ɬ], and was used in the description, as well (as "chocolate habanero"), but it proved to be unpronounceable to the British traders, so it was simply named "black habanero".<br><br>A 'Caribbean Red,' a cultivar within the habanero family, has a citrusy and slightly smoky flavor, with a Scoville rating ranging from 300,000 to 445,000 Scoville units.</div><script src="//cdn.public.n1ed.com/G3OMDFLT/widgets.js"></script>
C 19 R (100 S)
100 Seeds Habanero Red 5.45 - 3
Bilberry - Whortleberry Seeds (Vaccinium myrtillus) 1.95 - 1

Bilberry - Whortleberry...

Price €1.95 (SKU: V 199)
,
5/ 5
<h2><strong>Bilberry - Whortleberry Seeds (Vaccinium myrtillus)</strong></h2> <h2><span style="color:#ff0000;"><strong>Price for Package of 5 seeds.</strong></span></h2> <p>Ericaceae: a low, spreading shrub, up to 2ft tall, bilberry is one of the most common plants of the moorlands and mountains, growing among the heather. The green-pink bell-shaped flowers appear from April to June and are followed in July by round blue-black berries covered with a grape-like bloom. The berries, which can be used to make jam, they are also an important part of the diet of grouse and other moorland birds. Bilberry is known as whortleberry in some part of England. Native to Europe, including Britain, from Iceland south and east to Spain, Macedonia, the Caucasus and Northern Asia.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>USES:</strong></p> <p>The fruit can be used raw or cooked, they have a sweet and very tasty flavour, and they make an excellent preserve, their small seeds making them suitable for jam. A slightly acid flavour when eaten raw. The fruit can be dried and used like currants, also an herbal tea can be made from the leaves.</p> <p> </p> <p>The dried leaves of bilberries are used in the treatment of a variety of complaints. These leaves should be harvested in early autumn, only green leaves being selected, and then dried in gentle heat. The leaves should not be used medicinally for more than 3 weeks at a time. A tea made from the dried leaves is strongly astringent, diuretic, tonic and an antiseptic for the urinary tract. It is also a remedy for diabetes if taken for a prolonged period. Another report says that the leaves can be helpful in pre-diabetic states but that they are not an alternative to conventional treatment. The leaves contain glucoquinones, which reduce the levels of sugar in the blood. A decoction of the leaves or bark is applied locally in the treatment of ulcers and in ulceration of the mouth and throat. A distilled water made from the leaves is an excellent eyewash for soothing inflamed or sore eyes. Whilst the fresh fruit has a slightly laxative effect upon the body, when dried it is astringent and is commonly used in the treatment of diarrhoea. The dried fruit is also antibacterial and a decoction is useful for treating diarrhoea in children. The skin of the fruits contains anthocyanin and is specific in the treatment of hemeralopia (day-blindness).</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>GROWING INFORMATION:</strong></p> <p>Sow late winter in a greenhouse in a lime-free potting mix and only just cover the seed. Stored seed might require a period of up to 3 months cold stratification before germination will take place.</p> <p>I have found that a soak in a GA3 solution will seed up the germination, and also do away with the need for cold stratification, surface sow seeds!</p> <p> </p> <p><strong><em>Herbal Medicine: Biomolecular and Clinical Aspects. 2nd edition.:</em></strong></p> <p>Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) is one of the richest natural sources of anthocyanins. These polyphenolic components give bilberry its blue/black color and high antioxidant content, and they are believed to be the key bioactives responsible for the many reported health benefits of bilberry and other berry fruits. Although bilberry is promoted most commonly for improving vision, it has been reported to lower blood glucose, to have anti-inflammatory and lipid-lowering effects, and to promote antioxidant defense and lower oxidative stress. Therefore, bilberry is of potential value in the treatment or prevention of conditions associated with inflammation, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia or increased oxidative stress, cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer, diabetes, and dementia and other age-related diseases. There are also reports that bilberry has antimicrobial activity. In this chapter, bilberry and its components and characteristics are described, and evidence for the health benefits of bilberry is presented and discussed.</p> <p> </p> <p>The bilberry plant is a low-growing shrub native to northern Europe, but is now also found in parts of North America and Asia. Bilberry is also known as European blueberry, whortleberry, huckleberry, and blaeberry. It belongs to a large genus (Vaccinium) of plants that also contains blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) and cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon; Upton 2001). Bilberry is sometimes called blueberry because both have similar appearance and are close relatives, but the true blueberry is native to the United States (National Institutes of Health 2010). Bilberry usually grows in heaths, meadows, and moist coniferous forests, and its growth is favored by moderate shade and moderately humid ground conditions. The bilberry is a small (5-9 mm in diameter) fruit, bluish black in color, with many seeds.</p> <p> </p> <p>Bilberry is classified as a Class 1 herb by the American Herbal Products Association (Upton 2001), meaning it can be safely consumed when used appropriately. No mutagenic activity has been reported, and there are no cited contraindications to its use (Upton, 2001). Bilberry is sold as fresh, frozen, and dried whole berries, as well as in the form of preserves, jams, and juices, and, increasingly, liquid or powdered concentrates are sold as food supplements. Bilberry contains a variety of phenolic compounds, including flavonols (quercetin, catechins), tannins, ellagitannins, and phenolic acids, but anthocyanins make by far the largest contribution to its phytochemical mix (Upton 2001; Seeram 2008). These naturally occurring phenolic compounds are redox-active antioxidants as well as iron chelators (Benzie 2003; Zafra-Stone et al. 2007), and are found in red-, blue-, and purple-colored flowers, fruits, and vegetables. The usual daily dietary intake of anthocyanins is approximately 200 mg (Zafra-Stone et al. 2007). Bilberry has higher anthocyanin content compared to other types of berries, such as strawberry, cranberry, elderberry, sour cherry, and raspberry (Kowalczyk et al. 2003; Bagchi et al. 2004; Yildirim 2006; Cravotto et al. 2010). The total anthocyanin content of bilberry is generally in the range of 300-700 mg/100 g fresh fruit, although this range varies with cultivar, growing conditions, and degree of ripeness of the berry (Upton 2001; Burdulis et al. 2009). Along with anthocyanins, 100 g of fresh bilberry contains small quantities of vitamin C (3 mg), quercetin (3 mg), and catechin (20 mg; Upton 2001; Erlund et al. 2003).</p> <p> </p> <p>Although most attention has been focused on the antioxidant properties of anthocyanins in relation to health benefits of bilberry, the effects are likely to extend beyond simple antioxidant action to involve cell-signaling pathways, gene expression, DNA repair, and cell adhesion, as well as antineoplastic and antimicrobial effects (Kowalczyk et al. 2003; Packer and Cadenas 2007; Zafra-Stone et al. 2007; Seeram 2008; Benzie and Wachel-Galor 2010). Commercial bilberry products are often standardized to a 25% anthocyanidin content (equivalent to 36% anthocyanins); but this content can vary greatly (Upton 2001; Lee 2008). Recommended daily dosages also vary greatly, for example, 20-60 g of dried berries and 160-480 mg of powdered extract (Upton 2001).</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>ANTHOCYANINS</strong></p> <p>Anthocyanins (from the Greek anthos for flower and kyanose for blue) are water-soluble polyphenols flavonoid compounds (Clifford 2000; Ghosh and Konishi 2007; Yoshida, Mori, and Kondo 2009). Anthocyanins are responsible for the pink, red, blue, and purple color of plants (Upton 2001). The color is pH dependent; the color is red at pH &lt; 2, changing to blue as pH increases and finally becoming colorless at high pH. The anthocyanin molecule consists of an anthocyanidin “core” with a sugar moiety attached. The sugar can be attached at various positions, and can be glucose, galactose, xylose, arabinose, or rhamnose (Clifford 2000; Kong et al. 2003; Prior and Wu 2006). Anthocyanins vary also in the number and position of hydroxyl and methoxyl groups attached to the core anthocyanidin structure. Therefore, although there are less than 20 naturally occurring anthocyanidins, there are many hundreds of different anthocyanins (Upton 2001; Prior and Wu 2006; Ghosh and Konishi 2007; Yoshida, Mori, and Kondo 2009). The most commonly found anthocyanidins in nature are cyanidin, delphinidin, petunidin, peonidin, pelargonidin, and malvidin, but these are very rarely found in their aglycone (nonsugar) forms (Kong et al. 2003; Prior and Wu 2006). The concentrations of the main anthocyanins found in bilberry are given in Table 4.1.</p> <p> </p> <p>Although the function of anthocyanin pigments in plants is thought to be mainly that of attracting animals, insects, and birds for pollination or seed dispersal, anthocyanins may help in cold tolerance as well as antimicrobial and antioxidant defense of plant tissues (Benzie 2003; Kong et al. 2003). The anthocyanin content of berries varies across species and also depends on environmental factors, such as the amount of solar radiation, temperature, and soil content of nitrogen and phosphorus. The cultivation technique is also a factor affecting the total phenolic level of berries. Anthocyanins are found mainly in the skin of the berry, and damage to the fruit skin caused during harvesting decreases anthocyanin content (Upton 2001). Degrees of ripeness of berries also contribute to variation in total phenolic content—although the concentration of phenolic compounds is usually higher in unripe berries than in mature fruits, anthocyanins accumulate during bilberry maturation (Upton 2001). Anthocyanins have powerful antioxidant properties, and the content of anthocyanin pigment directly correlates with antioxidant activity of plants (Upton 2001; Bagchi et al. 2004; Yildirim 2006; Zafra-Stone et al. 2007). In addition to their antioxidant effects, anthocyanins have been reported to stabilize DNA, modify adipocyte gene expression, improve insulin secretion and sensitivity, and have antiapoptotic, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial effects (Mas et al. 2000; Kong et al. 2003; Kowalczyk et al. 2003; Tsuda et al. 2005; Seeram 2008). These numerous and potentially highly beneficial effects of anthocyanins make foods rich in these compounds, such as bilberry, potential candidates as “functional foods” and phytotherapeutics (Cravotto et al. 2010).</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>BIOAVAILABILITY AND DISTRIBUTION OF ANTHOCYANINS</strong></p> <p>Unlike other polyphenolic flavonoids, anthocyanins can be absorbed intact, that is, without removing their sugar moiety. Absorption (and renal elimination) of anthocyanins is reported to be rapid, but of low efficiency (Prior and Wu 2006). In rats, absorption takes place in the stomach and small intestine, and varies depending on the structure of the anthocyanin. Absorption ranged from 11% for malvidin-3-glucoside to 22% for cyanidin-3-glucoside (Talavera et al. 2003). Plasma anthocyanins are found in plasma a few minutes after oral administration of berries or berry extracts, but are cleared within 6 hours. In humans, anthocyanin absorption from grapes, red wine, elderberry, blackcurrant, chokeberry, hibiscus, and raspberry has been studied (reviewed by Prior and Wu 2006). Most studies showed a maximal plasma concentration of anthocyanin at 1-2 hours postingestion (range 0.5–3.0 hours). Maximal plasma concentrations were not clearly related to dose and were generally in the 5-50 nmol/L range. The highest plasma concentration reported (99 nmol/L) occurred after a dose of red grape juice containing 266 μmol of malvidin-3-glucoside (Netzel et al. 2003). The major metabolites of anthocyanins recovered in urine are glucuronated and methylated conjugates (Prior and Wu 2006).</p> <p> </p> <p>With respect to anthocyanins from bilberry, human data are lacking, although some animal studies have been performed (as described by Upton 2001). In rats, the plasma total anthocyanin concentration was 26 mg/L at 1 hour after intraperitoneal administration of bilberry anthocyanins. Anthocyanins were detectable also in tissues collected at the same time, at concentrations of 12-79 μg/g tissue. Kidney had three fold higher anthocyanin content than plasma, and skin had 1.5-fold higher content than plasma (Talavera et al. 2003, 2005). After oral administration (400 mg/kg) of bilberry anthocyanins to rats, a maximal plasma concentration of 2.47 mg/L was reported at 15 minutes, with bioavailability estimated at 1.2% (reported by Upton 2001). In a more recent animal study of distribution and excretion of bilberry anthocyanins (Sakakibari et al. 2009), the plasma concentration of mice was shown to peak at 15 minutes postingestion of an ethanol extract of fresh bilberries, showing a sharp decrease thereafter, and the renal excretion of anthocyanins represented 1.88% of the dose ingested. Thirteen anthocyanins were detected in the bilberry extract, and the main anthocyanins in plasma at 60 minutes postingestion were malvidin-3-glucoside and malvidin-3- galactoside (Sakakibari et al.2009). In mice fed bilberry extract for 2 weeks, plasma levels reached a maximum of 0.26 μmol/L and anthocyanins were found only in liver, kidney, testes, and lung. No anthocyanins were found in brain, heart, muscle, eyes, or white fat. The researchers concluded that bilberry anthocyanins are absorbed but are taken up by specific organs (Sakakibari et al. 2009). However, there may be differences in the tissue distribution of anthocyanins across different species, as brain uptake of anthocyanins has been reported in a rat model (Talavera et al. 2005).</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>HEALTH EFFECTS OF BILBERRY</strong></p> <p>Besides its use as a delicacy, bilberry is widely used to improve night vision and to decrease vascular permeability and capillary fragility; moreover, the berry has various other reputed health benefits, although most interest has been focused on anthocyanin-related antioxidant effects (Camire 2000; Upton 2001; Mazza 2002; Park et al. 2007; Zafra-Stone et al. 2007). Although there are many studies that have investigated the antioxidant and other health-related effects of anthocyanins and anthocyanin-rich berries and extracts or juices, only a few have used bilberry itself, and data from controlled human trials are scarce. In Sections 4.5.1 through 4.5.8, studies that have used mixed berry juices or extracts including bilberry are discussed, as well as those that have used only bilberry fruit or extracts.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Antioxidant Effects</strong></p> <p>Anthocyanins are potent antioxidants that scavenge radicals and chelate metal ions (Pool-Zobel et al. 1999; Mazza et al. 2002; Prior and Wu 2006). Many herbs and berries have powerful antioxidant properties (refer to Chapter 2 on antioxidants in herbs and spices), and these properties are thought to underlie many of the various health effects of herbs and berries.</p> <p> </p> <p>In primary cultures of rat hepatocytes, it was found that bilberry extract protected cells against oxidative damage (Valentova et al. 2006). As described by Upton (2001), bilberry or anthocyanin extracts of bilberry protects rat liver microsomes against oxidative damage and apolipoprotein B against ultraviolet (UV)-induced oxidative fragmentation. Animal studies show conflicting results. In a rat study, no significant change of urinary 8-OHdG (also known as 8-oxodG, and a biomarker of oxidative stress; Lee, Chung, and Benzie 2010), was reported after 14 weeks of supplementation with an anthocyanin-rich extract from mixed berries including bilberry (Lala et al. 2006). However, a significant decrease of malondialdehyde (a biomarker of lipid peroxidation; Benzie 1996) in brain was seen in OXYS rats fed with bilberry extract (2 g of dried aqueous extract including 0.35 g/kg diet; Kolosova et al. 2006). This strain of rats shows accelerated aging and higher oxidative stress compared to the Wistar rats and, interestingly, the Wistar rats did not show bilberry-related effects, suggesting that the antioxidant-effects of bilberry may be seen only in cases of elevated oxidative stress. A combination extract (OptiBerry) of six edible berries, including bilberry, was reported to show “unique antioxidant potential in a whole-body scenario” using an animal model exposed to hyperbaric oxygen (Bagchi et al. 2006). Rats given a bilberry extract (1% w/w in the diet) and subjected to doxorubicin (DOX) toxicity (induced with 15 mg/kg intraperitoneal injection of DOX) had lower lipid peroxides in serum and increased glutathione (GSH) in cardiac muscle cells compared to control animals, although no differences were seen in cardiac lipid peroxide levels (Choi et al. 2010). In mice stressed by restraint, marked increases in liver damage and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels associated with this stress were restored to normal levels by administering a bilberry extract, and there was also enhanced mitochondrial complex II activity, elevated sodium/potassium ATPase activity, and elevated mitochondrial membrane potential with the bilberry treatment (Bao et al. 2010).</p> <p> </p> <p>In contrast to the promising effects seen in animal studies, no effect on lipid peroxidation was seen in human volunteers after supplementation with mixed vegetables and fruits including bilberries (Freese et al. 2004). In general, most controlled human supplementation studies are performed on healthy subjects, and they have limited potential to respond in relation to biomarker changes. Better target groups for looking at antioxidant-related effects are those humans under higher oxidative stress, such as the elderly, those at elevated risk of heart disease, or diabetic patients. To date, there is only one published report of the effects of bilberry supplementation on antioxidant status and oxidative stress in human subjects (Karlsen et al. 2010). Subjects (n = 31) with at least one risk factor for CVD were supplemented with 330 mL/day bilberry juice (diluted to 1 L with water) for 4 weeks. However, results showed no significant changes in biomarkers of antioxidant status or oxidative stress in these subjects, compared to 31 control subjects (Karlsen et al. 2010).</p> <p> </p> <p>Two points of caution are offered here with respect to antioxidant content and action of bilberry anthocyanins. First, many of the bilberry extracts used in trials have not been characterized or standardized to anthocyanin content. Variation in anthocyanin content affects the antioxidant content of extracts. In vitro testing of the antioxidant capacity of commercial bilberry products by our group showed surprising results (Lee 2008). Using the ferric reducing/antioxidant power ability (FRAP) assay (Benzie and Strain 1999), the total antioxidant capacity of 11 commercial powdered bilberry extracts from various countries of origin were tested. Values ranged from &lt;20 to &gt;2000 μmol/g (Lee 2008). There was a strong correlation between the FRAP value and the anthocyanin content (r &gt; .96: p &lt; .001). Interestingly, whereas the anthocyanin content of commercial bilberry products is assumed to be standardized to 250 mg/g, or at least to be high, only 5 of the 11 commercial products had any stated anthocyanin content and 3 of the 5 had stated values of &lt;80 mg/g. Furthermore, the actual anthocyanin content of all but one product was &lt;60 mg/g, with concomitantly low FRAP values (Lee 2008). In one product with a stated content of 250 mg/g anthocyanins, the measured content was &lt;10 mg/g. Second, in vitro antioxidant activity may not reflect in vivo action (Pool- Zobel et al. 1999; Halliwell 2007). Molecular action of antioxidant phytochemicals may be independent of or indirectly related to antioxidant activity, may change with concentration, or may manifest only in the presence of other bioactives or under particular redox conditions (Halliwell and Gutteridge 2007; Packer and Cadenas 2007; Benzie and Wachtel-Galor 2010). Therefore, although anthocyanins are potent antioxidants in vitro, and fresh bilberry is a rich source of these, it cannot be assumed that all commercial bilberry products contain significant amounts of bilberry anthocyanins or that absorbed anthocyanins act directly as antioxidants in vivo. In the future, trials performed with bilberry extracts must use a standardized product of known anthocyanin content, and studies looking for health benefits should include a wide range of biomarkers of both antioxidant and nonantioxidant effects.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Genoprotective and Anticancer Effects</strong></p> <p>One in three people will receive a diagnosis of cancer at some point in their lives (WCRF 2007). Treatment of cancer is harsh and often unsuccessful. Cancer is a disease caused by mutations in key genes controlling cell division and growth. Damage to DNA increases the likelihood of such mutations, and any bioactive food or component that is found to protect DNA from damaging agents, lower baseline DNA damage, or increase DNA repair is a potential cancer-preventing agent (Collins 1999; Duthie 2007; Halliwell 2007; Kim et al. 2009). Although damage to DNA can be of many types and can result from many different processes and agents, oxidation-induced damage is thought to be a key factor. Chronic inflammation increases ROS load, and it is an important cancer risk factor (Aggarwal, Vijayalekshmi, and Sung 2009). Diet is an important modulator of risk (WCRF 2007; Benzie and Wachtel-Galor 2009; refer to Chapter 17 on herbs and spices in cancer prevention and treatment). Whereas most epidemiological data focus on the potential anticancer activity of mixed fruits and vegetables, few focus on types of individual berry. However, berries do have anticancer potential (Zafra-Stone et al. 2007; Seeram 2009), and there are some data from experimental studies that have used bilberry alone or in conjunction with other berries.</p> <p> </p> <p>In vitro work and animal tumorigenic models have demonstrated that berry anthocyanins have cancer-preventive and -suppressive activity via antioxidant activity; antiproliferative, apoptotic, anti- angiogenic, and anti-inflammatory effects; and induce the antioxidant response element (ARE) with consequent phase II enzyme induction and other cytoprotective effects (Hou 2003; Bagchi et al. 2004; Lala et al. 2006; Duthie 2007; Zafra-Stone et al. 2007; Wang and Stoner 2008; Seeram 2009; Benzie and Wachtel-Galor 2010; Matsunaga et al. 2010). Other mechanisms of genoprotection may involve direct interaction of anthocyanins with DNA. Natural anthocyanins have been reported to intercalate with DNA, forming a DNA copigmentation complex (Sharma and Sharma 1999; Mas et al. 2000; Kong et al. 2003). This triplex stabilization property suggests that anthocyanins could help regulate gene expression in addition to protecting DNA against oxidative damage (Sharma and Sharma 1999; Mas et al. 2000). Anthocyanins have been shown to protect DNA against oxidative stress induced by various agents (UV irradiation, hydrogen peroxide, tert-butyl hydroperoxide) in vitro (Lazzé et al. 2003; Seeram 2008; Svobodová, Zdařilová, and Vostálová 2009). However, it is noted that the doses used (100 μM or greater) for in vitro studies are much higher than values that can be reached in plasma through the dietary intake of anthocyanins. In animal feeding studies, cancer chemopreventive and therapeutic effects of anthocyanins and berries have been shown in various models (Hou 2003; Prior and Wu 2006; Choi et al. 2007; Zafra-Stone et al. 2007; Seeram 2008). Although convincing evidence from well-designed human experimental studies is lacking, there is sufficient robust evidence from in vitro and animal studies of anthocyanins to support clinical studies of cancer chemopreventive effects (Thomasset and Teller et al. 2009).</p> <p> </p> <p>With reference to cancer-related studies that have investigated bilberry specifically, a hexane/ chloroform extract was reported to induce a phase II detoxification enzyme (quinine reductase) in a cell-culture model (Upton 2001). Detoxification of xenobiotics is important for cancer prevention. The extract did not affect the activity of ornithine decarboxylase, an enzyme associated with progression of cancer; but it did inhibit growth of two breast cancer cell lines (Madhavi et al. 1998). Interestingly, a commercial anthocyanin-rich extract from bilberry was shown to inhibit growth of colon cancer cells but did not affect growth of normal colon cells, suggesting a possible specific action against cancer cells (Lala et al. 2006). Among the ethanolic extracts of 10 different berries tested for induction of apoptosis in human cancer cells (HL60 leukemia and HCT116 colon cancer cells), bilberry extract was reported to be the most effective. Interestingly, delphinidin and malvidin aglycone inhibited HL60 cells, whereas delphinidin and its glycoside, but not malvidin and its glycoside, inhibited HCT116 cells (Katsube et al. 2003). Delphinidin is the main anthocyanin in bilberry.</p> <p> </p> <p>In an animal study, the number of intestinal adenoma decreased significantly by 15-30% in rats with genetic colon adenoma that were fed a high dose of bilberry extract (10% w/w in diet, supplying approximately 5.5 g anthocyanin per kilogram per day (Mutanen et al. 2008). Similar findings were shown with a lower dose of a commercial bilberry extract (mirtoselect®, at a daily dose of 0.3% w/w diet, supplying approximately 0.5 g anthocyanin per kilogram per day; Cooke et al. 2006). This dosage is equal to approximately 740 g of fresh bilberries in terms of human intake. More recently, an extract of bilberry was shown to dose-dependently inhibit cell growth and promote induction of apoptosis in cultured breast cancer cells (MCF7-GFP-tubulin breast cancer cells; Nguyen et al. 2010). At higher doses (0.5–1.0 mg/mL), the bilberry extract arrested the cell-cycle at the G(2)/M phase and inhibited microtubule polymerization (Nguyen et al. 2010). In a DNA microarray study, an anti-inflammatory gene activation/inhibition profile was seen in macrophages treated with a bilberry extract (Chen et al. 2008). As noted earlier in this section, inflammation is an important risk factor for cancer. If the molecular evidence for an anti-inflammatory effect of bilberry is confirmed in clinical study, it would support the use of bilberry in cancer prevention. In a pilot study of 25 colorectal cancer patients, an anthocyanin-standardized extract of bilberry (mirtocyan®, supplying between 0.5 and 2 g of anthocyanins per day) was given for 7 days prior to surgery (Thomasset and Berry et al. 2009). After 7 days, bilberry anthocyanins and their glucuronide and methyl metabolites were detected in plasma and also in tumor tissue (179 ng/g tissue at the highest bilberry extract dose), and plasma levels were found to be related to dose. The tumor tissue showed a 7% decrease in proliferation compared to prebilberry values, and there was a small but significant decrease in plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) seen with the lowest dose (Thomasset and Berry et al. 2009). These preliminary data from human study provide important and clear support for further clinical studies of bilberry anthocyanins in cancer chemoprevention.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Cardioprotective Effects</strong></p> <p>All over the world, CVD is a leading cause of death. Major risk factors of CVD include central obesity, diabetes, hypertension, elevated levels of lipids, and high levels of uric acid. Increased oxidative stress may also contribute, and inflammation is a key factor. Atherosclerosis, the main underlying factor in CVD, is an inflammatory process associated with oxidative processes in and damage to the vascular endothelium (Libby, Ridker, and Maseri 2002). Therefore, the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of anthocyanins are of relevance to potential cardioprotective effects of bilberry and other berries. Antihypertensive, lipid-lowering, hypoglycemic, and antiobesity effects would also be cardioprotective (Zafra-Stone et al. 2007; Erlund et al. 2008).</p> <p> </p> <p>Gene expression in bilberry-treated macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) showed an anti-inflammatory profile (Chen et al. 2008). Furthermore, a controlled human supplementation trial showed decreased concentration of inflammatory biomarkers in the plasma of 31 subjects who took bilberry juice for 4 weeks (Karlsen et al. 2010) Most notably, significant decreases were seen in plasma levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), a sensitive biomarker of subclinical inflammation and a predictor of CVD, and the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin 6 (IL-6). No significant effects were seen on plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, or uric acid concentrations (Karlsen et al. 2010). In an animal study, plasma triglycerides were decreased after feeding rats with an extract of bilberry leaves (3 g/kg/day) for 4 days (Cignarella et al. 1996). However, it is noted that the leaves and not the berries of V. myrtillus L. were used and the effects may not have been related to anthocyanins, which are found mainly in the deeply colored berries. In a controlled human study of 35 subjects who took 100 g of whole bilberries each day, platelet function, blood pressure, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol were all improved (Erlund et al. 2008). However, in addition to the daily bilberry supplement, the subjects took a mixture of various berries during the study. A study of 23 healthy volunteers given a mixture of grape seed, pine bark, bilberry, and red wine for 4 weeks showed an insignificant decrease in acute impairment in endothelial function caused by a high-fat meal (Barringer, Hatcher, and Sasser 2008). In another human study, mixed anthocyanins from bilberry and blackcurrant (Ribes nigram) were given as an extract (320 mg/day) for 12 weeks to 60 middle-aged dyslipidemic Chinese subjects (Qin et al. 2009). Results showed significant improvements in low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol (average decrease of approximately 14%) and HDL-cholesterol (average increase of approximately 14%). No significant changes were seen in plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, or apolipoproteins, but the plasma concentration of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) was significantly decreased, and the change in CETP correlated with the changes in lipids. An in vitro study by the same group showed that cyanidin-3-O-glucoside lowered CETP activity in human HepG2 cells, and the researchers concluded that the bilberry and blackberry anthocyanin mixture improved lipids in their human subjects by inhibiting CETP activity and changing cellular cholesterol efflux (Qin et al. 2009).</p> <p> </p> <p>Regarding blood pressure and vascular health, bilberry fruit anthocyanins have been reported (Upton 2001) to inhibit smooth muscle contraction and platelet aggregation. These are potentially antithrombotic and antihypertensive effects and have cardioprotective effects. Possible antihypertensive effects of bilberry are also suggested by the finding of inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity in cells in vitro (Persson, Persson, and Andersson 2009). A significant, dose-dependent inhibition of ACE activity was seen in endothelial cells from human umbilical veins that had been incubated in bilberry extract (0.00625–0.1 mg/mL) for 10 minutes (Persson, Persson, and Andersson 2009). Interestingly, individual anthocyanidins (cyanidin, delphinidin, and malvidin) had no inhibitory effect, and the researchers concluded that ACE-inhibition seemed to be dependent on the specific mixture of anthocyanins in bilberry (Persson, Persson, and Andersson 2009). Anthocyanins from bilberry were reported to protect against ischemia reperfusion injury in an animal model, and to attenuate leucocyte adhesion and improve blood perfusion (Bertuglia, Malandrino, and Colantuoni 1995). In rats that were fed bilberry anthocyanins for 12 days prior to inducing hypertension, permeability of the blood-brain barrier was kept normal and there was limited increase in the vascular permeability of the skin and aorta wall (Detre et al. 1986).</p> <p> </p> <p>Anthocyanins and bilberry have also been reported to have antiobesity and hypoglycemic effects, which would bring cardioprotective benefits. These will be discussed in Section 4.5.5.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Anti-Inflammatory Effects</strong></p> <p>Inflammation is a protective mechanism, but chronic inflammation increases oxidative stress and underlies many age-related diseases, including CVD and cancer (Libby, Ridker, and Maseri 2002; Halliwell and Gutteridge 2007; Aggarwal et al. 2009). Many studies suggest that anthocyanins, the predominant phenolic compounds found in bilberry, have anti-inflammatory effects (Karlsen et al. 2007; Chen et al. 2008; Dreiseitel et al. 2008; Kim et al. 2009). Suggested mechanisms include inhibiting proteasome activity, which controls the degradation of cellular proteins (Dreiseitel et al. 2008), and inhibiting nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activation, which controls expression of genes involved in the inflammatory response (Karlsen et al. 2007; Chen et al. 2008). Supplementation with Medox (a commercial product of purified anthocyanins from bilberries supplying 300 mg of anthocyanins) by healthy subjects for 3 weeks was associated with a decrease in several NFκB-regulated proinflammatory chemokines and immunoregulatory cytokines (Karlsen et al. 2007), and a follow-up study showed decreased levels of hsCRP and inflammatory cytokines in plasma of 31 subjects who took 330 mL/day of bilberry juice for 4 weeks (Karlsen et al. 2010). As oxidative stress may mediate inflammation injury, the antioxidant properties of bilberry may be responsible for at least some of the anti-inflammatory effects reported. However, selective gene activation and inhibition by mechanisms other than direct antioxidant effects are likely (Chen et al. 2008; Benzie and Wachtel-Galor 2010).</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Hypoglycemic Effects</strong></p> <p>The bilberry plant is reputed to possess antidiabetic properties, and its berries and leaves (as well as those of other Vaccinium species) have been used for centuries to ameliorate the symptoms of diabetes (Cignarella et al. 1996; Martineau et al. 2006; Ghosh and Konishi 2007; Cravotto et al. 2010). In a survey of 685 Italian herbalists, bilberry ranked fourth in a list of herbal remedies recommended for improvement of glycemic control (Cicero, Derosa, and Gaddi 2004). The reported hypoglycemic effect of bilberry is a desirable effect for helping to prevent or control type 2 diabetes, which is a highly prevalent condition caused by insulin resistance and B cell failure (ADA 2010). Type 2 diabetes is associated with increased oxidative stress, inflammation, and dyslipidemia, and is accompanied by an increased risk of CVD, cancer, and vision loss through cataract and retinopathy (Brownlee 2005; Jee et al. 2005; Choi et al. 2008; ADA 2010).</p> <p> </p> <p>The hypoglycemic effect of bilberry may be mediated in part by interference with enzyme action, especially α-glucosidase activity (McDougall, Kulkarni, and Stewart 2008), and also by effects on insulin secretion and glucose transport. Anthocyanins were found to stimulate insulin secretion from cultured rodent pancreatic B cells, with cyanidins and delphinidins (the major anthocyanins in bilberry) showing the greatest effect among different anthocyanins tested (Jayaprakasam et al. 2005). In addition, low-bush blueberry, which belongs to the same family as bilberry, at 12.5 μg/mL was demonstrated to enhance glucose transport into muscle cells and adipocytes in the absence of insulin (Martineau et al. 2006).</p> <p> </p> <p>In an animal study with a water-alcohol extract of bilberry leaves given to streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice (3 g/kg/day for 4 days), a significant decrease (26%) was seen in plasma glucose (Cignarella et al. 1996). Blood glucose was significantly decreased (by 33% and 51%, respectively) after administration of a phenolic-rich extract (containing approximately 287 mg/g anthocyanin) and an anthocyanin-enriched fraction (containing approximately 595 mg/g) from a Vaccinium blueberry extract at a dose 500 mg/kg to diabetic (C57b1/6J) mice (Grace et al. 2009). In gavage treatment with pure anthocyanins (300 mg/kg), malividin-3-O-glucoside was found to have a significant hypoglycemic effect in these animals, but delphinidin-3-O-glucoside did not (Grace et al. 2009). As shown in Table 4.1, the malvidin-3-O-glucoside concentration of bilberry is 3.35% (Upton 2001). Significant decreases in serum glucose and fructosamine were shown in alloxan-induced diabetic mice at, respectively, 120 minutes and 7 days after being given a 20 mg/kg dose of “antidiabetis", an herbal preparation that included bilberry (Petlevski et al. 2001).</p> <p> </p> <p>Obesity is a strong predisposing factor for type 2 diabetes. Berry polyphenols may help prevent obesity by inhibiting digestive enzymes, such as lipase, thereby lowering fat absorption (McDougall, Kulkarni, and Stewart 2008). Cyanidin-3-glucoside has been shown to suppress the development of obesity in mice fed a high-fat diet and to regulate human adipocyte function (Tsuda 2008). Human preadipocytes were collected from subcutaneous adipose tissue, cultured, and differentiated into adipocytes before being treated with anthocyanins for 24 hours. Adiponectin, an anti-inflammatory cytokine, was upregulated, and there was downregulation of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-6 and also of the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1); the anthocyanin treatment also activated adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in adipocytes without increasing the AMP/adenosine triphosphate (ATP) ratio (Tsuda 2008). Together, these changes indicate a role for anthocyanins in preventing metabolic syndrome, an increasingly common condition associated with insulin resistance, hypertension, and dyslipidemia that often progresses to type 2 diabetes. In a follow-up study, Tsuda and coworkers reported that a bilberry extract added to the diet of diabetic mice (27 g/kg diet, which gave an anthocyanin content of 10 g/kg diet) lowered serum glucose and improved insulin sensitivity (Takikawa et al. 2009). There were no differences in body weight or serum adiponectin levels between the bilberryfed and the control animals, but the antidiabetic effects of the bilberry extract were associated with AMPK activation in white adipose tissue and skeletal muscle and liver, and were accompanied by increased glucose transporter 4 (GLUT 4) in white adipose and skeletal tissue and lower hepatic gluconeogenesis (Takikawa et al. 2009).</p> <p> </p> <p>Although there are some published human studies of the hypoglycemic effects of berries (e.g., cranberry, chokeberry), strong evidence from human trials is lacking (Matsui et al. 2006; Helmstädter and Schuster 2010). To our knowledge, there are no published controlled human studies with bilberry on diabetes patients. The two published human supplementation studies with bilberry (Qin et al. 2009; Karlsen et al. 2010) studied subjects at elevated risk of CVD, but they were not diabetic. It is unlikely that significant effects of bilberry would be seen in subjects with normal glucose tolerance No differences were seen in plasma glucose levels in 60 nondiabetic dyslipidemic subjects who took a mixed bilberry and blackcurrant anthocyanins supplement (120 mg/day anthocyanins) for 12 weeks (Qin et al. 2009). In the study by Karlsen et al. (2010), which investigated the effect of 4 weeks of supplementation with 330 mL/day of bilberry juice in subjects with at least one risk factor for CVD, no glucose data were shown.</p> <p>Although we lack human data on the antidiabetic effects of bilberry, numerous in vitro and animal studies provide good evidence of a role for bilberry in treating or preventing type 2 diabetes. This could be a very rewarding area of future research given the huge socioeconomic problem posed by this highly prevalent disease. In addition to the clear benefits that would come from increasing insulin secretion and glucose transport, other effects of bilberry, such as its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and lipid-lowering effects, would help delay the serious vascular complications of diabetes. Controlling obesity would help prevent many cases of type 2 diabetes. Also, there is increasing evidence of increased risk of cancer with hyperglycemia to hyperglycemia (Jee et al. 2005; Stocks et al. 2009). The Metabolic Syndrome and Cancer (Me-Can) Project is a large prospective study of six European cohorts, with a total of over 500,000 subjects, and after an average follow-up of 10.4 years, results strongly support high blood glucose as a risk factor for incident cancer at many specific sites and for cancer death (Stocks et al. 2009). Oxidative stress, inflammation, and increased amounts of growth factors, including IGF-1, also increase cancer risk and are high in those with type 2 diabetes. The combination of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and hypoglycemic effects of an herb or a functional food would bring significant long-term benefits, particularly to those with type 2 diabetes, and studies of bilberry focusing on these effects in this group are warranted.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Ocular Effects</strong></p> <p>Bilberry has a long history of use for eye disorders and in promoting vision. There have been numerous studies of the effects of bilberry on various aspects of vision and ocular disorders, including cataract, retinopathy, macular degeneration, and night vision (reviewed by Camire 2000; Upton 2001; Canter and Ernst 2004; Ghosh and Konishi 2007; Zafra-Stone et al. 2007). Many studies have shown positive effects, including improvement in retinal abnormalities, increased capillary resistance, slowing of progression of lens opacity and myopia, and improved dark adaptation. For example, in a study of 50 patients with mild senile cataract, 4 months of supplementation with bilberry anthocyanins plus vitamin E was reported to have a 97% success rate in preventing cataract progression (Bravetti, Fraboni, and Maccolini 1989). A double-blinded, placebo-controlled study reported that in six subjects who were given bilberry anthocyanins, dark adaptation at 1 hour and hours postingestion was faster (6.5 minutes) compared to six control subjects (9 minutes; reviewed by Zafra-Stone et al. 2007). However these, and many other, studies, were small; used mixed supplements, such as bilberry plus other berries or bilberry combined with vitamin E; or were uncontrolled. Canter and Ernst (2004) reviewed 30 published trials of bilberry-extracted anthocyanins on lowered light and night vision. Only 12 of the 30 studies were placebo controlled, and the conclusion was that there was insufficient rigorous evidence to recommend the use of bilberry for improving night vision (Canter and Ernst 2004).</p> <p> </p> <p>Nevertheless, there is supporting scientific evidence of beneficial effects of bilberry in relation to ocular disorders and vision loss. A study by Jang et al. (2005) showed that a bilberry extract (100 μM anthocyanins) protected against photooxidation of pyridinium disretinoid A2E, an autofluorescence pigment that mediates a detergent-like disturbance of cell membranes and light-induced damage to cells, and that the effects were due at least in part to the quenching of singlet oxygen. Milbury et al. (2007) showed that bilberry anthocyanins (1 mg/mL) modulated the oxidative stress defense enzymes heme oxygenase-1 (HO)-1 and glutathione-S-transferase-pi (GST-pi) in retinal pigment epithelial cells that were preincubated with anthocyanin extract before H2O2 challenge. Song et al. (2010) studied the effect of bilberry extract on cultured corneal limbal epithelial cells and showed that bilberry promoted physiological renewal and homeostasis of these cells. A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study showed that symptoms of asthenopia and contrast sensitivity for 22 of the 30 subjects studied (73%) improved significantly after 4 weeks of 100 mg/day of purified anthocyanin (85% anthocyanoside oligomers; Lee et al. 2005). In a study with cultured retinal ganglion cells, bilberry anthocyanosides inhibited chemical-induced cell damage and radical activation, and this neuroprotective effect, which may have been an antioxidant-related effect, was also seen in vivo when bilberry anthocyanosides (100 μg/eye) were injected into the vitreous of mice (Matsunaga et al. 2009).</p> <p> </p> <p>Age-related vision loss, mainly due to senile cataract and macular degeneration, affects the quality of life of virtually all elderly persons. Diabetic retinopathy is highly prevalent in those who have had diabetes for 10 or more years and is a leading cause of blindness in developed countries. There is sufficient evidence from animal and cell-culture studies and small human trials to warrant more powerful, controlled human trials of bilberry in helping to address the huge clinical problem of age and diabetes-related vision loss.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Neuroprotective Effects</strong></p> <p>The phenomenon of age-related degenerative diseases leading to cognitive decline is common and relentless. Stroke, whether triggered primarily by hypertension or thrombosis, is a major cause of death and disability. The vasodilatory and anti-inflammatory effects of bilberry can be expected to have significant effects in relation to the preservation of cognition and neuromotor function through lowered risk of both hemorrhagic and thrombotic strokes. Furthermore, neuronal tissue, including the retina, is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acid, and the antioxidant properties of anthocyanins may protect these oxidation-susceptible sites and, thereby, preserve brain and retinal function, although it is not yet clear whether anthocyanins are taken up by brain tissue. Berry fruits and fruit polyphenols have been reported to be neuroprotective, enhance dopamine release, and improve neuronal communication (Zafra-Stone et al. 2007; Matsunaga et al. 2009; Shukitt-Hale, Lau, and Joseph 2009). A commercial bilberry extract (Myrtocyan® at 200 mg/kg daily for 5 days by intraperitoneal administration) given to rats was reported to increase triiodothyronine transport to different regions of the brain, and bilberry is reported to promote short-term memory, vision, and control of sensory input in animals (Saija et al. 1990; Cignarella et al. 1996; Prior and Wu 2006; Zafra-Stone et al. 2007). However, most studies on the neuroprotective effects of berries and their constituents have been performed on cultured cells and in animals, and cognition-related studies using bilberry specifically are lacking.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Antimicrobial Effects</strong></p> <p>Antimicrobial effects of herbs and natural products can be via inhibition of bacterial binding (adhesion) to cell walls, direct antimicrobial killing, or by effects that potentiate antibiotics, as evidenced by lowered minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of antibiotics in the presence of an herb compared to that of the antibiotic alone. Several natural products have been found to have antimicrobial effects (Lee et al. 2006). Cranberry (V. macrocarpon Ait.) has powerful antiadhesion properties and is widely used to prevent infections of the urinary tract (see Chapter 6 on cranberry). Other researchers have reported the antiadhesion effects of berries on Helicobacter pylori, and also that berry extracts increase the antimicrobial effects of the antibiotic clarithromycin against H. pylori (Chatterjee et al. 2004).</p> <p> </p> <p>Bilberry and other berry fruits, as well as purified berry phenolics, have been reported to show direct antimicrobial effects against human pathogens, including Salmonella and Staphylococcus aureus (Puupponen-Pimiä et al. 2005a,b). Interestingly, pure phenolic compounds (as opposed to berry extracts) were found to inhibit only gram-negative bacteria (which include Salmonella species and Escherichia coli), and the effects were related to the degree of hydroxylation of the pure phenolic compounds (Puupponen-Pimiä et al. 2005a,b). Berry extracts were found to inhibit those affected by the pure phenolic compounds; further, extracts inhibited the growth of not only H. pylori but also Bacillus, Clostridium, and Staphylococcus, which are gram-positive organisms. Therefore, whole berries or extracts of whole berries may be more effective as antimicrobials than purified extracts. The effects of various berries against various organisms are different. For example, cloudberry (Rubus chamaemorus) showed a bactericidal effect on S. aureus, whereas bilberry had a bacteriostatic effect (Puupponen-Pimiä et al. 2005a). The antimicrobial effects of bilberry against Salmonella and Staphylococcus were increased by enzymatic treatment of the fruit mash, which increased phenolic release into the berry juice; however, there may also have been structural changes to the berry components during treatment (Puupponen-Pimiä et al. 2005a,b). In a recent study of wild berries, bilberry juice inhibited adhesion of Streptococcus pneumoniae to human bronchial (Calu-3) cells, and bilberry juice also inhibited growth of S. pneumoniae, although the effects of bilberry were less than those of cranberry (Huttunen et al. 2010).</p> <p> </p> <p>The findings of antimicrobial effects in herbs and other natural products is important and timely, not least because of the new infectious diseases arising in recent years. S. pneumoniae is the major cause of meningitis, otitis media, and pneumonia. The presence of various pathogens in food and water is common and their toxic consequences can be severe. Antibiotic resistance in microbes is a serious and increasing problem; moreover, the immune system declines with age and our populations are aging. Bilberry has a clear potential value as an antimicrobial agent. In a preliminary study conducted by our group, bilberry showed a direct effect against methicillin-resistant S. aureas (MRSA), with an MIC of 1.2 mg/mL for bilberry extract alone. Furthermore, the effect of vancomycin against MRSA strains was potentiated. In the presence of 0.6-mg/mL bilberry extract, the MIC for vancomycin was decreased from 1.8 to 0.7 μg/mL. These are interesting and potentially important findings for the use of bilberry in treating antibiotic-resistant organisms.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION</strong></p> <p>Throughout history, berries have been an important and valued part of the human diet. Berries contain many components, but anthocyanins, the phenolic compounds that give berries their red, blue, and purple colors, have been found to have a wide range of health-related properties, including antioxidant, antitumorigenic, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic, and antimicrobial effects. Bilberry is rich in anthocyanins, especially delphinidins and cyanidins. There is supporting evidence that these compounds are bioavailable and bioactive. Molecular effects that have been demonstrated in experimental studies and their clinical implications for human health are summarized in Figure 4.2. However, well-designed human trials using standardized extracts of bilberry are needed to provide the level and variety of clinical evidence that will translate current molecular insights and understanding into clear recommendations for bilberry as a possible tool to combat chronic and infectious diseases in our aging populations.</p> <p> </p> <p><img src="http://www.si-seeds.com/img/cms/Lichtkeimer%20EN1.png" alt="" width="492" height="208" /></p>
V 199
Bilberry - Whortleberry Seeds (Vaccinium myrtillus) 1.95 - 1

Variety from Croatia
Green Beans Seeds SLAVONSKI ZELENI 1.35 - 1

Green Beans Seeds SLAVONSKI...

Price €1.35 (SKU: VE 44 (10g))
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5/ 5
<h2><strong>Green Beans Seeds “Slavonski Zeleni”</strong></h2> <h2 class=""><span style="color: #ff0000;"><strong>Price for Package of 20 (10g) seeds.</strong></span></h2> <p>Originated from the coastal Danube plains in Serbia and Croatia. This variety is of low growth about 40 cm, excellent taste, early variety, low, greenish grain. The shape of the grain is cylindrical-elliptical. Vegetation, 70-75 days.</p> <p>The absolute weight of 1000 grains amounts to 330-380 g.</p> <p>Sowing:</p> <p>Optimal sowing period: April</p> <p>Sowing depth: 4 - 5 cm</p> <p>Distance between rows: 50 cm</p> <p>Distance in a row: 5 cm</p><script src="//cdn.public.n1ed.com/G3OMDFLT/widgets.js"></script>
VE 44 (10g)
Green Beans Seeds SLAVONSKI ZELENI 1.35 - 1

Variety from Japan
Yuzu Seeds Japanese citrus fruit -20°C (Citrus junos) 4.15 - 1

Yuzu Seeds Japanese citrus...

Price €4.15 (SKU: V 118 Y)
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5/ 5
<h2><strong>Yuzu Seeds Japanese citrus fruit -20°C (Citrus junos)</strong></h2> <h2><span style="color: #ff0000;"><strong>Price for Package of 2 or 4 seeds.</strong></span></h2> <p>The fruit looks somewhat like a small grapefruit with an uneven skin, and can be either yellow or green depending on the degree of ripeness. It is hardy to <strong>-20C.</strong></p> <p>Yuzu limes are small to medium in size, averaging 5-10 centimeters in diameter, and are round, oblate, to slightly lopsided in shape. The peel is thick, pebbly, rough, pocked with many prominent oil glands and pores, and matures from dark green to golden yellow. Underneath the peel, the yellow flesh is minimal, divided into 9-10 segments by white membranes, contains some juice, and is filled with many large, inedible cream-colored seeds. Yuzu limes are highly aromatic, and the rind is rich in essential oils that are released when the fruit’s surface is scratched or cut. The juice and zest also have a unique, acidic blend of sour, tart, and spicy flavors with notes of lime, grapefruit, mandarin. <br /><br /></p> <h2>Seasons/Availability</h2> <p><br />Yuzu limes are available in the winter through the early spring. <br /><br /></p> <h2>Current Facts</h2> <p><br />Yuzu limes, botanically classified as Citrus junos, are slow-growing citrus that are found on an evergreen tree or shrub that can reach over five meters in height and belongs to the Rutaceae family. Believed to be a hybrid between the satsuma mandarin and the ichang papeda, Yuzu limes are not botanically a lime but have earned the title since they are often prepared and used similarly. Yuzu limes are mainly cultivated in China, Japan, and Korea and are favored for their tart and spicy juice and zest. They are also valued for their strong fragrance and in Japan, it is one of the most popular scents to be used for cosmetics, candles, cleaning supplies, and bath products. While popular in Asia, Yuzu limes are still relatively unknown in the Western world, but they have been gaining awareness through famous chefs praising and using its unique flavor. <br /><br /></p> <h2>Nutritional Value</h2> <p><br />Yuzu limes are an excellent source of potassium and vitamin C. They also contain flavonoids, vitamin P which can help absorb other nutrients and increase circulation, and nomilin, which can help aid the body in relaxation. <br /><br /></p> <h2>Applications</h2> <p><br />Yuzu limes are best suited for both raw and cooked applications and are used for their juice and zest. When juiced, Yuzu limes can be mixed into sauces, vinegar, dressings, and marinades, or they can be shaken into cocktails, flavored water, and tea. Yuzu lime peels can also be used to flavor salted butter for seafood dishes, zested over salad or sashimi, used to flavor ponzu sauce, or ground into powdered form and sprinkled over dishes as a concentrated flavor. In addition to savory dishes, Yuzu lime juice and zest can be baked into tarts or pies, mixed into sorbets, or used in custard. Yuzu limes pair well with coriander, mint, eggs, sashimi, scallops, grilled fish, snow crab, poultry, steak, pork, pepper, black sesame seeds, cumin, lime, raspberry, pomegranate, and cherries. The fruits will keep two weeks when stored in the refrigerator. <br /><br /></p> <h2>Ethnic/Cultural Info</h2> <p><br />In Japan, the Yuzu lime is one of the most popular fragrances and is most well-known for its use in the winter solstice bath. Each year during the winter solstice, public bathhouses will slice the fruit in half and float them in hot water, creating an aromatic experience. This bathing practice dates back to the 18th century and soaking in Yuzu water is believed to help prevent sicknesses such as flu and colds, and the essential oils and vitamin C are believed to help soften the skin and relieve pain. In addition to bathing, the Yuzu fragrance is also utilized in Yuzu tama or Yuzu egg production. On the island of Shikoku, Japan, farmers feed their hens a mixture of Yuzu peel, sesame seeds, corn, and kale to naturally create an egg that has the flavor and scent of the Yuzu lime. These eggs are sold at a premium price and are traditionally used for tamago kake gohan, which is cooked rice with a raw egg mixed in. <br /><br /></p> <h2>Geography/History</h2> <p><br />The origins of Yuzu limes are somewhat disputed among scientists, but the majority of scientists conclude that the fruit’s origins are within the upper regions of the Yangtze River in China and have been growing since ancient times. Yuzu limes were then introduced to Japan in 710 CE where they became increasingly popular for their light scent. In 1914, Frank Meyer, the man who discovered the Meyer lemon, visited China and brought seeds from the Yuzu fruit back to the United States. Included in his description of the fruit, he noted that he sourced the seeds from the Hubei Provence along the upper slopes of the Yangtze River at an astonishing elevation of 4,000 feet. The temperatures dip below freezing in that area, and there are no other citrus varieties that grow near the region. Today Yuzu limes are predominately available at local markets in Asia, but there are also a few farms in the United States that commercially cultivate the fruit and sell at farmers markets and specialty grocers</p> <script src="//cdn.public.n1ed.com/G3OMDFLT/widgets.js"></script>
V 118 Y (2 S)
Yuzu Seeds Japanese citrus fruit -20°C (Citrus junos) 4.15 - 1
Transparent Clear Test Tube With lid 2 ml

Transparent Clear Test Tube...

Price €0.28 (SKU: PE 3 (2ml))
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5/ 5
<h2><span style="font-size: 14pt;"><strong>Transparent Clear Test Tube With lid 2 ml </strong></span></h2> <h3><span style="color: #ff0000; font-size: 14pt;"><strong>Price is for 1 Test Tube.</strong></span></h3> <p>Ideal for storing seeds or some other things.</p> <p>The lid is perfectly closed and therefore, so you can hold also liquids.</p> <p>Disposable plastic centrifuge tube with cap.</p> <p>Made of pp material, heat resistance up to 150 degrees, no bubble without impurities.</p> <p>Pointed bottom, flexible cover, easy to open.</p> <p><strong>Specification:</strong><br><span>External&nbsp;Diameter:&nbsp;13cm/0.51"</span><br><span>Inner&nbsp;Dia:&nbsp;0.9cm/0.35"</span><br><span>length:&nbsp;4.2cm/1.65"</span><br><span>Size:&nbsp;L&nbsp;1.65"&nbsp;x&nbsp;W&nbsp;0.75"</span><br><span>Material:&nbsp;Polypropylene</span><br><span>Color:&nbsp;Transparent</span></p> <script src="//cdn.public.n1ed.com/G3OMDFLT/widgets.js"></script>
PE 3 (2ml)
Transparent Clear Test Tube With lid 2 ml

Giant plant (with giant fruits)

Variety from Japan
Giant Japanese White Radish...

Giant Japanese White Radish...

Price €1.95 (SKU: VE 107)
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5/ 5
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8" /> <h2><strong>Giant Japanese White Radish F1</strong></h2> <h2><span style="color: #ff0000;"><strong>Price for Package of 10 seeds.</strong></span></h2> <p>Giant Japanese White Radish has very long fruit. The fruit is white and crisp! The fruits can be picked within 85 days. Its root is long, white, cylindrical, with a blunt end. Under good conditions, the root can reach up to 75 cm in length.</p>
VE 107 (10 S)
Giant Japanese White Radish Japana F1
ARTISAN BLUSH TIGER Cherry Tomato Seeds 2.5 - 5

ARTISAN BLUSH TIGER Cherry...

Price €1.95 (SKU: VT 103)
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5/ 5
<h2 class="">ARTISAN BLUSH TIGER Cherry Tomato Seeds</h2> <h2><span style="color: #ff0000;">Price for Package of 5 or 10 seeds.</span></h2> <p>ARTISAN™ Tiger is an exciting new series of open pollinated 5cm long&nbsp; (20-25 Gram) baby plum cherry tomato varieties, which are best for greenhouse production or outdoor growing in warm, sunny and sheltered spots.&nbsp; Their distinctive stripes and stunning rich colours make them ideal for summer salads with a superb sweet flavour and resistance to cracking.</p> <p>Artisan Blush Tiger is an indeterminate baby plum tomato noted for its exceptionally sweet, juicy, tropical flavour and heavy set of fruits over an extended period. The fruits are ready to pick when a pink blush appears over the golden yellow skin.</p> <p>Sow in spring 1/16 inch deep.&nbsp; Germination takes around 6-14 days at 65-75F.</p> <p>Transplant the seedlings when large enough to handle into 3 inch pots.&nbsp; Grow on under cooler conditions and when about 8 inches tall, best planted to their growing position in the greenhouse or gradually acclimatise them to outdoor conditions and plant out 18 inches apart in a warm, sheltered and sunny spot in moist, fertile well drained soil and keep watered.</p> <p>What's the difference between "indeterminate" and "determinate" tomatoes?</p> <p>Determinate tomatoes, or "bush" tomatoes, are varieties that grow to a compact height (generally 3 - 4'). Determinates stop growing when fruit sets on the top bud. All the tomatoes from the plant ripen at approximately the same time (usually over period of 1- 2 weeks). They require a limited amount of staking for support and are perfectly suited for container planting.</p> <p>Indeterminate tomatoes will grow and produce fruit until killed by frost. They can reach heights of up to 12 feet although 6 feet is normal.&nbsp; Indeterminates will bloom, set new fruit and ripen fruit all at the same time throughout the season. They require substantial staking for support and benefit from being constrained to a central growing stem.</p><script src="//cdn.public.n1ed.com/G3OMDFLT/widgets.js"></script>
VT 103 (5 S)
ARTISAN BLUSH TIGER Cherry Tomato Seeds 2.5 - 5